Tag Archives: Ocean

Happy Halloween From Our Fish Family to Yours

Black Eyed GobyThe black eyed goby, often called a ghost goby, is a small Osteichthyes, named for their black eyes which contrast their light beige skin. Reaching only about six or seven inches long as an adult, they eat smaller organisms such as amphipods, mollusks, and crustaceans. They are active during the day, living in sandy areas near rocky intertidal zones, not often below 400 ft. A cool fact about these fish is they are protogynous hermaphrodites! This means that they all start their lives as female, and will eventually change to male. Their reproductive organs are changing!! This happens for many species in the animal kingdom. 

Halloween Dragon Fish

The dragon fish (Grammatostomias flagellibarba) is a deep sea Osteichthyes (bony fish), also called the loose jaw or viper fish. Growing up to two feet in length, with a muscular jaw and extremely large sharp teeth, they can hardly close their mouths. Their jaws are “loose,” meaning it is hydrostatically connected to their skeleton, there is no skin behind the jaw which reduces friction and drag. They feed on small fish, crustaceans, and anything they can find in the dark depths of the ocean. One of the coolest adaptations of these dragon fish is their bioluminescence! They have photophores on their underbody as a form of camouflage. Some of the 287 known species have a lure at the end of their mouths, called a barbel, with photophores covering it to attract prey. They also have specialized red photophores underneath their eyes that act as headlights. The long wavelengths of red light do not have enough energy  to reach far depth in the ocean, so most deep sea creatures do not have the ability to see red light. Therefore these fish have headlights that other creatures cannot see!! They are bandits of the deep sea, with night vision while still invisible to those around them.

Happy Halloween FishLike the Dragon fish, angler fish are a deep sea Osteichthyes, living at least 6600ft below the surface, where light does not reach. They average two to eight inches long, but some species can grow up to forty inches long! Only females have the lure with bioluminescence photophores at the end of it. They use this to attract prey and males. Males are much smaller than females and do not have a lure so they spend their lives wandering the dark abyss until they find a female, and in a survival effort they will bite and latch onto the body of the female. Over time they will fuse to the female, body and blood line, and obtain all their nutrients from the female. The females will have multiple parasitic males on them, therefore having their genetic material at the ready when it is time to reproduce. Females are often red or translucent to blend in with their dark surroundings, their lure is actually a modified dorsal spine with bacteria at the end of it. The symbiotic relationship with this bacteria produces the light. Once a prey gets close enough to it, the female will catch and swallow it whole! They have a large, fast jaw with sharp teeth, allowing them to eat prey twice their size! Scary and awesome!

StonefishThe stonefish is arguable one of the most terrifying Osteichthyes in our world’s oceans because it is the most venomous fish in the world! Quite the creepy halloween creature. Their venom is a defense mechanism. They have dorsal spines with hypodermic needles. If something tries to attack from above, or if something steps on them, it will encounter these spines. Sharp enough to puncture human skin, and deadly enough to kill an adult human these spines are terrifying! The venom is cytolytic, meaning when it is injected into the blood stream it explodes cells and basically dissolves from the inside out. As a master of camouflage, they will hide perfectly still in coral or a rocky reef, sitting and waiting for a meal to swim by. Once a small fish swims too close they ambush! Sucking the prey in and swallowing it whole. Quite terrifying…but tis the season!

Goblin SharkLastly, we have the absolutely adorable goblin shark! This Chondrichthyes (cartilagenous fish) lives in deep water, usually 130 to 4000 ft deep. They are purplish grey in color with bright blue around the edges of their fin. Unlike other sharks, goblin sharks do not have a protective eyelid. They average about five ft long, but the larges recorded was over twelve feet long! Their distinguishing extended snout is covered in pores called Ampullae of Lorenzini. These are filled with electroreceptive jelly, which allows sharks to decide pulses in the water, or under the sand, up to about one meter away from them. Goblin sharks are capable of extending their unhinged jaw out as far as their snout to eat organisms such as small bony fish, squid, and crustaceans.

Sources

https://dwazoo.com/animal/blackeye-goby/

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/fish/group/anglerfish/

https://oceana.org/marine-life/ocean-fishes/deep-sea-anglerfish

http://www.seasky.org/deep-sea/dragonfish.html

https://ocean.si.edu/ocean-life/fish/deep-sea-dragonfish

https://oceana.org/marine-life/ocean-fishes/stonefish

https://ocean.si.edu/ocean-life/sharks-rays/goblin-shark

Pictures

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Under Pressure

It may not always be noticeable but everything on earth is under pressure. Above the ocean’s surface everything is subject to the air pressure of our atmosphere, which equals about fourteen and a half pounds per square inch, or one atmosphere of pressure.

If that doesn’t seem like much then consider the fact that it is pressing down on every single part of your body at all times. You’ve probably opened a brand new bottle of soda before and noticed how when the seal is cracked there is a familiar hissing sound and the bottle becomes more flexible. This is because sodas are stored under a few atmospheres of pressure to help keep them carbonated or “fizzy”.

fish

That’s only one example of pressure though. Now, consider water weighs a lot more than air. The amount of pressure that most animals in the ocean have to live with is a lot greater than the amount that surface dwellers have to live with. At a depth of only thirty-three feet, the surrounding water pressure is now two atmospheres or double the amount of air pressure at the surface. At this depth there is no need to worry about the pressure being strong enough to do any physical harm but for fish that use a swim bladder, which is a gas filled organ used to maintain buoyancy, the increase in density of their bodies becomes an issue. The deeper you go, the denser you become. The denser you become, the faster you will sink without being able to stop it. Luckily most fish have the ability to deal with this issue before a problem occurs, but for others like the chambered nautilus, maintaining the right depth is crucial for survival. The nautilus uses chambers of gas inside its hard shell and water exchange for buoyancy so unlike many fish, it cannot raise or lower its buoyancy level very quickly if need be.
To witness how pressure exists all around us you can do an experiment for yourself. Try cracking an egg under water and notice how the surrounding water pressure keeps the egg round instead of it falling apart.

It’s Shark Week!

For as long as humans have roamed the Earth, sharks have swam the oceans. In fact, sharks have been around for much longer than us…about 100 times longer, to be exact! Sharks have been in existence for about 450 million years, and we are currently aware of about 450 different species of shark, discovering new ones each year!

The truth of the matter is that we really don’t know all that much about sharks, but what we do know is that these ocean creatures are as fascinating as they are mysterious, because not much is directly known about their breeding, migrating, or feeding habits. Luckily, Discovery Channel’s Shark Week airs once a year to teach us all about the latest findings within the marine science community.

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Every year during the summer, this weeklong series focuses on the fascinating lives of the most feared ocean creatures, sharks! This biting program has aired since 1988, making it the longest running cable television event in history. Shark Week focuses on the habits of these elusive animals, and seeks ultimately to debunk irrational fears that people have developed surrounding these ocean apex predators.

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Shark Week has been educating the public for decades, and has helped to make incredible strides for the conservation and advocacy of these often overlooked and misunderstood animals. In fact, one could argue that Shark Week has boosted the popularity of these elusive predators in mainstream media. Beginning with this weeklong series, public fears and curiosity were confronted with cool shark facts and fascinating footage, which captivated audiences and began to assuage our age-old shark fears. In fact, there’s been a noticeable shift in the general public’s outlook on our most feared ocean-dwelling friends.

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For instance, a few Great White Sharks made headlines last year when they beached themselves on the coast of Cape Cod. As opposed to running the opposite direction, beachgoers ran instead to their rescue. The footage of the public running to the aid of these long feared creatures and the immediate Internet attention this video received shows how people’s perspectives have begun to take a turn for the better. Similarly, some of these White Sharks have massive twitter followings. OCEARCH, a shark research organization, developed real-time tracking for a handful of White Shark individuals, giving them names like Mary Lee and Kathrine. These females and their movements captivated social media followers and have amassed a base of over 80,000 twitter followers, making them the most famous White Sharks of the ocean!

Katherine

Thanks to the efforts of Discovery Channel’s Shark Week and organizations like OCEARCH, shark populations off US waters have begun to make a comeback. The North Atlantic population has bounced back from decimated numbers, and as well human perception has begun to see a shift from fear to fascination. These top predators may look scary from the outside, but they are key species to the oceanic ecosystem, and hey, sharks have feelings too! So be sure to tune in to Shark Week on June 26th, because it’s guaranteed to provide us with some incredible shark footage and scientific insight!

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Sailing into the Sea Camp Family

I joined the Sea Camp sail staff in 2012 after USC’s School of Cinematic Arts accepted me into their Film and Television Production program. Before coming to Catalina, I worked for ten years as the Assistant Sail Director for a day camp in Coconut Grove, Florida for children ages 7-13. I also sailed competitively throughout high school, traveling around the country to various regattas.

My first summer on the island was filled with new experiences, exciting adventures, and lifelong friendships. I earned the sail name Ripple Dill my very first week at camp after reading a label on a bucket and it immediately became part of my identity. Check these camper sail names: What would your sail be?

It has been an incredible privilege to be part of the sail staff and we have created our own little family. We collaborate to create the safest and most enjoyable program possible for our campers, we plan trips together for our days off, and reunite regularly when we are off the island. In particular, the Tubbs family, who have had all three of their children work at Toyon Bay, have welcomed me into their family, which is a great resource for someone from the east coast.

Ripple Dill

I have also enjoyed watching our campers share my passion for sailing and grow from children into young adults. This past spring, one of my favorite sailors was accepted to my alma mater, Bowdoin College, and will be attending in the fall. When I return to Los Angeles at the end of the summer, I will graduate from my masters program and plan to pursue a career at a talent agency. I know that the lessons that I have learned here will serve me well for the rest of my life and Toyon Bay will always be a place that I call home.

Rippledill

Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: 26 Years Later

According to the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council, on March 29th, 1989 approximately 11 million gallons, or 17 Olympic-sized swimming pools, of crude oil were spilled into Prince William Sound, Alaska. Due to the amount of oil, timing of the spill, and pristine location in which it occurred, the Exxon Valdez oil spill is still widely considered one of the worst oil spills in history in terms of environmental damage. The spill covered 460 miles, and approximately 1,300 miles of shoreline were impacted. Even after 26 years, the habitat and wildlife are still suffering from effects of the spill.

Though almost all animals were affected by this environmental disaster, birds were among the most immediately and widely affected. The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council estimates that 250,000 seabirds were killed by the spill. Birds are particularly susceptible to oil damage because of their feathers. Birds use their feathers as insulation to protect them from cold water. When oil penetrates feathers, they can no longer hold air to keep the birds warm. Many birds died of hypothermia because of this lack of insulation.

Birds often perform preening, an act of straightening their feathers with their beak. The beak also has a specialized gland that produces an oily substance to keep the feathers waterproof. Along with destroying the effects of this waterproofing substance, crude oil is likely to be ingested by birds while preening. When ingested, the crude oil acts as a poison, killing the bird. Clean up efforts required washing individual animals with dish soap to rid their feathers of crude oil. Unfortunately, it also stripped the feathers of natural oils, so a recovery period was necessary.

Crude oil is considered a persistent oil; meaning natural processes are not usually enough to remove it from the environment. Because a large amount of oil was pouring out of a number of holes into calm seas, the oil slick spread consistently on top of the water. Compounding this issue, the lack wave action or turbulence in Prince William Sound during the spring did not break up the oil into fragments or droplets. Without this breakup of the oil slick, natural processes such as dissolution or biodegradation, along with clean up substances being dropped onto the slick, did not have opportunity to take effect.

There is a simple experiment that can be performed to examine the effects of crude oil on bird feathers. Buy soft feathers from a craft store. Create a “crude oil” mixture by mixing 3 parts vegetable oil and 1 part cocoa powder. Make one bowl each of salt water, fresh water and fresh water with dish soap. Dip feathers in the crude oil mixture and compare the washing effect of each type of water. Feel how oily each feather is after washing. Pouring the crude oil mixture at different speeds can also simulate the effect of turbulence. First, pour the oil into the salt water bowl quickly, taking note of the natural separation of the oil into droplets. Quickly pouring the oil creates turbulence in the bowl, simulating wave action and rough water separating an oil slick. Then, pour the mixture slowly. This represents calm seas, in which the oil will spread evenly, coating the entire surface of the water.

Sea Cucumbers: The More You Know


Sea cucumbers are a species of invertebrates under the phylum Echinodermata similar to sea stars and sea urchins. Sea cucumbers live in the benthic zone or ocean floor. They are nocturnal creatures but can be seen in the day as well. Sea cucumber uses their tube feet for locomotion and eating. The mouth is surrounded by twenty retractable tentacles that help them bring food in. They may seem slow, but have a very effective defense mechanism called evisceration in which they can jettison their internal organs to distract or in hopes their prey will eat their organs instead of attacking them. Sea cucumbers can regenerate these organs within days.

Sea cucumbers diets consist of algae, aquatic invertebrates, and waste particles in the ocean. Sea cucumbers are in high demands in Asian markets for their use in medicine and food. Sea cucumbers reproduce by the female launching her eggs in the waters, the male does a similar process with his sperm. Sea cucumbers can also self-reproduce as well.

Sea cucumber’s shape is elongated and is found on the sea floor worldwide. The most common species found on Catalina Island include the warty sea cucumber and the giant California sea cucumber.

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Ocean Echolocation

Echolocation is the emittance of sound and the reflection of vibrations off of an object back to the sender. This is commonly used by bats and dolphins! Dolphins release a high pitch click or snap sound that travels through the ocean in an effort to locate their food source. However some scientists do not agree about where the sound comes from.  “Some scientists suggest that sound is emitted from a nasal plug and that the shape of the melon is altered by muscles to focus sound.  Other scientists believe that the larynx emits sound and argue that echolocation focusing is achieved by bouncing sound off various parts of the skull.” (http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/nmml/education/cetaceans/cetaceaechol.php). The time it takes for a dolphin to send and receive this information varies depending on how far the vibrations have to travel back to the dolphin.

Here at CIMI we teach echolocation to students a few different fun ways. Jacque, a Toyon Bay CIMI Instructor, is seen teaching her students how echolocation works through the use of props such as the sample dolphin skull she is seen holding. Her students also participate in a fun game of echolocation! Four students are split up into dolphins and fish. The dolphins are blindfolded and will emit a sound, a clip or snap, and the fish will repeat that sound. It is the dolphins job to find the fish using “echolocation” or the repetition of their sound. Our students find out that it is a bit harder than they realized!

WELCOME TO THE SEA CAMPER BLOG

We would like to thank you for visiting our blog. Catalina Sea Camp is a hands-on marine science program with an emphasis on ocean exploration. Our classes and activities are designed to inspire students toward future success in their academic and personal pursuits. This blog is intended to provide you with up-to-date news and information about our camp programs, as well as current science and ocean happenings. This blog has been created by our staff who have at minimum a Bachelors Degree in Marine Science or related subject. We encourage you to also follow us on Facebook, Instagram, Google+, Twitter, and Vine to see even more of our interesting science and ocean information. Feel free to leave comments, questions, or share our blog with others. Please visit www.catalinaseacamp.org for additional information. Happy Reading!

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